The revised Waste Framework Directive defines the EU targets to recycle 65 % of municipal waste by 2035. At the same time, it requires a separate biowaste collection or recycling at the source by 2023. (Directive 2018/851/EU.) Biowaste accounts for 34 % of municipal waste in the EU, thus representing the largest single component of municipal waste. Food waste constitutes about 60 % of biowaste. Therefore, biowaste recycling has a great potential for reaching the EU targets and the transition towards a more circular economy. At the same time, its recycling delivers valuable nutrients back to the soil and produced biogas is a renewable energy source. (European Environment Agency 2020.)
In some countries, a separate biowaste collection is still either not possible or not yet mandatory. Voluntary small-scale home and community composting has been on the rise and has attracted many citizens. That was a stimulus for one of the CECI – Citizen Involvement in Circular Economy Implementation project partners, Moravian-Silesian Innovation Center Ostrava (MSIC) in the Czech Republic. In March 2021, MSIC organized a “How to compost in the city” online workshop for its citizens. It was organized in cooperation with the socially responsible company KOKOZA o.p.s., which promotes urban composting and gardening among citizens, companies and other organizations. Kokoza especially introduces composting technologies suitable for the city, either at home or in communities.
During the workshop, Andrea Šustrová from KOKOZA, introduced the food loop principle (growing-food-composting), shared practical tips on biowaste sorting at home, and suitable composting solutions. For these purposes, home vermicomposters, Bokashi, City Worms, or Urbalive composters were presented. (Šustrová 2021.)
A vermicomposter is a simple and rather small device, in which biowaste (of vegetable origin) is processed through California earthworms and other microorganisms. Vermicomposting provides two organic treasures: (1) odourless, nutrient-rich and natural solid compost and (2) a liquid worm tea fertilizer for house or garden plants. (Šustrová 2021.)
If the idea of having earthworms at home is not durable, it is possible to use, for instance, Bokashi composters. The Bokashi composter decomposes biowaste by anaerobic fermentation and thus prevents the putrefaction process. Dried Bokashi bacteria are added to the biowaste. As a result of Bokashi composting, fermented organic material and a liquid Bokashi juice are produced. (Šustrová 2021.)
Urban community gardening is getting popular. In the Czech Republic, these gardens, as well as the location of community composters and availability of earthworms for vermicomposting are marked in the Mapko.cz application. Besides environmental advantages, community composting and gardening bring also great social benefits by supporting knowledge exchange among its members as well as relaxation. (Šustrová 2021.)
Composting at a small scale at home or in communities may be the first step for every citizen in their participation in a circular economy. All 45 participants of the workshop were inspired to start and test composting either at home or propose it in their communities and workplaces.
Klára Golabová works as a Project Developer in the Moravian-Silesian Innovation Centre Ostrava, Czech Republic and is the CECI coordinator in Ostrava.
Katerina Medkova works as an RDI Specialist at LAB University of Applied Sciences and is CECI Communication Manager. CECI – Citizen Involvement in Circular Economy Implementation is an Interreg Europe co-funded project led by LAB University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
Directive (EU) 2018/851 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2008/98/EC on waste. EUR-lex. [Cited 29 Mar 2021]. Available at: http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2018/851/oj
European Environment Agency. 2020. Bio-waste in Europe — turning challenges into opportunities. [Cited 29 Mar 2021]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2800/630938
Šustrová, A. 2021. KOKOZA: Jak na kompostování ve městě. Presentation at CECI thematic workshop: How to Compost in the City? on 24 Mar 2021.
Link 1. Interreg Europe. 2021a. Project Summary. CECI. [Cited 29 Mar 2021]. Available at: https://www.interregeurope.eu/ceci/
Link 2: MSIC. 2017. Moravskoslezské inovační centrum Ostrava, a.s. [Cited 29 Mar 2021]. Available at: https://www.ms-ic.cz/
Link 3: Red Worm Composting. 2008. Making Vermicompost Tea. [Cited 26 Apr 2021]. Available at: https://www.redwormcomposting.com/worm-tea/making-vermicompost-tea/